Document Type : Original Research Article

Author

Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul University, Korea

Abstract

Graphite anodes are used in cream plating of trivial baths. During plating, the trivalent cream is oxidized to the hexavalent cream on the anodes and as a result the cathodic efficiency is reduced, so in order to prevent oxidation, the solution around the anode is separated from the solution around the cathode with a ceramic wall. Another way to prevent oxidation of trivalent cream is to add carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid reduces hexavalent cream to trivalent cream. Zabotin and Kozlovsky have shown that in a sealed container under a neutral atmosphere, divalent cream ions accumulate in the bath, depending on the pH, temperature, and current density of 30 to 60 percent of the total amount of cream. Macho believes that in trivalent cream plating baths with large amounts of organic matter, the deposition of the cream is independent of the amount of its divalent ions. In this case, the only reaction that occurs is the direct reduction of trivalent worm ions to the metal. With increasing the amount of cream, the reduction of trivalent cream to bivalent is accelerated and with increasing the temperature of the bath, the concentration of organic matter and the density of the trivalent cream reduction process decreases to divalent. The cream can be plated in certain conditions of its trivalent baths.

Graphical Abstract

Investigation of trivalent cream plating problems

Keywords

Main Subjects

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